As kids we’re taught to share our toys. It’s a hard lesson to “get.”
When it comes to cybersecurity and information sharing, many still don’t “get” it. Liability concerns, competitive disadvantages, and so on. But even if some of these concerns are legitimate, this lesson really shouldn’t be so hard.
According to the latest Verizon DBIR, while compromises are happening faster, the time to discover the compromise is taking longer than in previous years. We can combat this challenge through the use of sound threat intelligence and sharing among “friends.” Through intel you can be more prepared in advance of an attack, reducing the amount of incidents you need to respond to.
Many are trying to address this sharing problem — hence the creation of Information Sharing and Analysis Centers, aka ISACs. There are a boatload of ’em — 18 listed on Wikipedia’s page on ISACs. Each of these ISACs is specific to an industry, so in theory there is relevancy built in to the information that is shared. The intent of these ISACs is sound, and there are many good people working to make these ISACs really useful. But they have their limits as well. We all have businesses to run and support after all.
So how do we take the ISAC concept up a notch, where the intel being shared is more than relevant, but SPECIFIC to your business? Privatize the ISAC to fit your own business ecosystem. This means pulling in your partners and suppliers. You should already be sharing information with them anyway, just include cyber as part of it.
Whether you are a big, medium or small business, most likely you have partners and suppliers that are an extension of your cyber footprint. They typically have some level of access to to your network, applications and data. Having these intersecting points allows business to run more efficiently. But with these intersections comes risk. A company’s suppliers are often integral to their business — I need X and Y to fulfill Z, and X comes from a supplier. Suppliers that don’t pay enough attention to security ultimately can cause a very direct and painful impact on your business (Target is the obvious supply chain cyber example used often, but there are plenty more where that came from).
As opposed to sharing information with folks you don’t know (and let’s be honest, how much do you want to really expose to a wider audience not within your control?), your own supply chain is, for all intents and purposes, just an extension of your own enterprise. It only makes sense that your security “umbrella” should extend out a bit over them as well.
As such, sharing info, analysis and expertise within your “extended family” can be very valuable to establishing the kind of early warning system that is the promise of cyber information sharing to begin with — and without most of the risks.
Sharing threat intelligence, risk identification and other analysis with your partners helps you help yourself. Cybercriminals work together and share information all the time in Dark Web forums and even sometimes out in the open.
Sharing is caring. And the group of folks that you will get the most value out of sharing cyber threat intelligence with are the companies in your supply chain.
I am a practical guy. I don’t like to waste a lot of time and tend to gravitate to things that work, whether I originally thought up the idea or if someone else did. I’m of the “if it works then it works” mantra. Much of that attitude stems from joining the military and being thrust into a culture that demands outside-the-box-thinking. Assess the problem and work through scenarios, use past experience and lessons learned, use the right tool for the right job and lastly, be mission oriented.
When it comes to cyber threat intelligence (CTI), the key value can be unlocked by making it practical. What are the answers to the “so what” questions? Why would anyone want to spend budget on this? CISOs and like roles have a lot of headaches. How does this help that headache? How do I make this stuff useful to decision makers? Who are the decision makers? Why would they care?
The problem is the value from CTI is being misrepresented. What I’ve noticed is that there is an overwhelming drum beat towards tools — tools that will sprinkle pixie dust over your threats and make things “actionable.” But getting an avalanche of data is not the same as evaluated intelligence — and yet they get confused way too often.
Information is raw and unfiltered. Intelligence is organized and distilled. Intelligence is analyzed, evaluated and interpreted by experts. Information is pulled together from as many places as physically possible (creating an unnecessary and unrealistic workload for any analyst team to organize, distill, evaluate, etc.), and may be misleading or create lots of false positives. Intelligence is accurate, timely and relevant.
The reality is that “actionable” really just means a new alert/alarm/event that you now have to whack-a-mole. In some of the presentations I’ve given I’ve talked about the “actionable, actionating, actionator.” Sounds ridiculous right? That’s the point. But this is more common than it should be. And because of this teams are getting dragged away from productive efforts and into areas that are less productive.
This should not be surprising as many of the CTI vendors are tool builders, and no surprise, they push tools to solve the problem. However, here is where I will deviate, my background is that of a CISO, Program Manager, Team Builder. I am seeing a big disconnect between threats that are present in our industries and the practical application of resources — combination of people, process and technology — to reduce the likelihood of those threats from becoming a reality.
You see there’s a big difference between security tools and programs. Security tools (or feeds) are bolt-on and output-driven while security programs encompass people, process and technology … and they are OUTCOME-driven.
Threat intelligence should be outcome-driven vs. output driven. In my previous role as a CISO, I wanted and needed to know about threats that were specific to my organization. I needed to know what capability, opportunity and intent those threat actors had, along with a plan to ensure we were well-positioned before an event occurred (and in case we were not ready, that we had an effective plan in place as we moved from event to incident to breached).
So as you look at the many “threat intelligence” options out there, ask yourself this: will this intel drive the organization to make the right decisions and take the right actions?
Don’t try to bite off more than you can chew and start simple by focusing on evaluated intelligence. From there make your risks learnable by separating out random (or un-analyzed) risks from what is more likely so you can reduce your uncertainty — and then tie those learnable risks to the characteristics of your business.
The Dark Web is often misunderstood. For the unfamiliar, it is often viewed as either a mysterious place full of technological gurus communicating via primitive interfaces or else something akin to the Wild West — a no-holds-barred free-for-all of dangerous and illicit activity.
However, neither is the case.
The most popular marketplaces, where everything from stolen identities and credit cards to drugs and weapons are for sale, are more reminiscent of popular e-commerce sites than of the shady, backdoor dealings one may expect from criminals. Buying stolen accounts and intellectual property — as well as exploit kits, hacking-for-hire services, and the infrastructure to distribute malware is actually quite simple.
This reality runs contrary to much of the media coverage around the Dark Web. Stories such as the 2013 take down of the infamous Silk Road marketplace tend to focus on the scary aspects of “hidden” websites or scandalous details such as the Silk Road’s murder-for-hire plot — ignoring the fact that most people with an hour of free time and a few Google searches can easily find these sites and purchase illicit goods and services if desired.
In this series of blog posts, SurfWatch Labs hopes to shine on light on various aspects of the Dark Web, starting with what the Dark Web actually is — and what it isn’t.
1. Most Dark Web Markets are Customer Friendly
Those new to the Dark Web are often surprised by the level of customer service and the ease of which fraudulent goods and services can be obtained. However, this makes sense given the fact there are many competing marketplaces on the Dark Web. Customers and sellers are going to gravitate towards markets that appear the safest and have the best features.
AlphaBay is among the most popular and established Dark Web marketplaces (Nucleus Market, another popular marketplace, recently went offline). These marketplaces try to emulate the features seen on popular e-commerce sites such as Amazon or eBay.
Some of these features include:
Easy Navigation – Items are categorized into high-level categories such as fraud with subcategories like accounts, credit cards, personal information, data dumps and others.
Vendor and Trust Levels – Sellers often have ratings. In the case of AlphaBay there is both a “Vendor Level,” which is based on number of sales and amount sold, and a “Trust Level,” which is based on the level of activity within the community as well as feedback from users.
Feedback and Refunds – Buyers can also see feedback from customers and often have the option of returns or replacements such as credit card numbers that may no longer work due to being reported stolen.
Although these Dark Web markets tend to not be discoverable through Google and often require special software such as the Tor browser in order to access, they do want users to find and use them — so they are easy to locate, search for goods or services and make purchases.
2. They’re Concerned About Security and Trust
Most people know the old adage “there is no honor among thieves,” and these illicit markets work hard to help assuage those fears. This begins at the customer level with ratings and reviews.
These features help to establish trust when buying things like malware and stolen credit cards. Through ratings and feedback the community can collectively judge whether the items for sale can be used for legitimate fraud and attacks – or if they are just a scam.
“We now enforce mandatory 2FA (two-factor authentication) for all vendors,” read the AlphaBay announcement. “This is part of an increasing effort to stop phishing on the marketplace. We recommend that everyone uses 2FA for more security.”
In addition, many markets try to avoid coming to the attention of law enforcement. Following the November 2015 terrorist attacks in Paris, which killed 130 people, Nucleus Market posted this message on its homepage:
The decision came just a week after the shootings and news reports that the guns used in the attacks may have been acquired from the Dark Web. Likewise, although child pornography is prevalent on the Dark Web, most of the markets do not sell it alongside the drugs, counterfeit goods and other illegal stolen items because that would attract unwanted attention to them and their user base.
Some Dark Web markets combat the the influx of law enforcement and researchers by requiring a referral in order to gain access. Others only show items that are for sale to established users or require authorization from the seller to view details about the product. This can make it harder for agents posing as “new customers” to monitor activity, and it helps to increase the trust factor around those marketplaces and forums.
3. No, the Dark Web is Not That Massive
In the summer of 2015, two researchers set an automated scanning tool loose on the Tor Network in an effort to find vulnerabilities on Dark Web sites. After just three hours the scan was over and they’d uncovered a little more than 7,000 sites.
A more recent effort to index the Dark Web put that number at close to 30,000 sites — a sizeable amount, but still far less than the massive underground world many have described.
As Wired wrote last year, the number of people on the Dark Web is quite small:
The Tor Project claims that only 1.5 percent of overall traffic on its anonymity network is to do with hidden sites, and that 2 million people per day use Tor in total. In short, the number of people visiting the dark web is a fraction of overall Tor users, the majority of whom are likely just using it to protect their regular browsing habits. Not only are dark web visitors a drop in the bucket of Tor users, they are a spec of dust in the galaxy of total Internet users.
4. It’s a Valuable Source of Threat Intelligence
The Dark Web is a valuable place to gather threat intelligence. SurfWatch Labs threat intelligence analysts proved that recently when they uncovered a breach into web hosting provider Invision Power Services.
That’s not to say everyone should jump on the Dark Web and poke around. It is easy to stumble across illegal things such as child pornography, and without the proper precautions companies or individuals may end up infecting their computers or putting themselves on the radar of cybercriminal groups — making themselves a potential target. However, what better way is there to understand the current threat landscape and the motivations of these malicious actors than to see for yourself what they are talking about, what they are selling, and if your company — or anyone in your supply chain — is being mentioned.
The Dark Web isn’t the cybersecurity cure-all that some companies make it out to be, but it is a significant part of a complete threat intelligence operation. Without visibility into these markets and the active threats they contain, your organization is operating at a disadvantage.
The 2015 tax season has ended, signaling a potential break in the number of tax-related data breaches we read about in the news. The list of companies suffering from these cyber-attacks seemed to grow weekly and nearly 100 companies have been publicly tied to W-2-related breaches in 2016. SurfWatch Labs collected a multitude of CyberFacts pertaining to W-2 and tax data breaches during the 2015 tax season.
The IRS, predictably, has the most CyberFacts related to tax and W-2 cybercrime in 2016. The IRS has suffered massive data breaches within the last year. In 2015, the IRS exposed 700,000 taxpayer accounts through its “Get Transcript” service. Last February, the IRS was breached again, with more than 100,000 stolen Social Security Numbers used to successfully access an E-file PIN. Events like these have lead to predictions that the IRS will lose $21 billion to cyber fraud and fake tax returns in 2016.
Surprisingly, the group Higher Education also received a lot of discussion, with the high profile W-2 data breach at the University of Virginia leading the way in terms is discussion.
IRS and FBI Release Warnings About Tax Fraud
In March, the IRS released an alert about tax fraud which described various methods used by criminals to obtain W-2 and tax information. The alert provided information on several areas individuals and organizations leave themselves vulnerable to compromise:
Abusive Return Preparer “Taxpayers should be very careful when choosing a tax preparer. While most preparers provide excellent service to their clients, a few unscrupulous return preparers file false and fraudulent tax returns and ultimately defraud their clients. It is important to know that even if someone else prepares your return, you are ultimately responsible for all the information on the tax return.”
Abusive Tax Schemes “Abusive tax scheme originally took the structure of fraudulent domestic and foreign trust arrangements. However, these schemes have evolved into sophisticated arrangements to give the appearance that taxpayers are not in control of their money. However, the taxpayers receive their funds through debit/credit cards or fictitious loans. These schemes often involve offshore banking and sometimes establish scam corporations or entities.”
Nonfiler Enforcement “There have always been individuals who, for a variety of reasons, argue taxes are voluntary or illegal. The courts have repeatedly rejected their arguments as frivolous and routinely impose financial penalties for raising such frivolous arguments. Take the time to learn the truth about frivolous tax arguments.”
The FBI also released a warning in March related to the rise of Business Email Compromise (BEC) scams targeting businesses and individuals within organizations. BEC scams have gained notoriety for defrauding organizations out of money. However, BEC scams can also be used to obtain information from organizations — including W-2 and tax information.
“Based on complaint data submitted to IC3, B.E.C. victims recently reported receiving fraudulent emails requesting either all Wage or Tax Statement (W-2) forms or a company list of Personally Identifiable Information prior to a traditional BEC incident,” the warning read.
A “traditional” BEC attack starts with a fraudulent request that is sent utilizing a high-ranking executives spoofed email. In this case, the email is sent to a member of an organization who handles employee W-2 and tax information. The email will appear to be an urgent message requesting all employee W-2 information.
This is what happened at Sprouts Farmers Market, which is facing a class action lawsuit after an employee fell for a BEC scam and forwarded W-2 information on all 21,000 of the company’s employees to a malicious actor.
Protecting Yourself From Tax Fraud
One of the biggest vulnerabilities we face concerning our data is that it is handled by other human beings. Humans make mistakes, and cybercriminals capitalize on this. Since corporations cannot guarantee your data will be safe in their hands, you must remain vigilant and prepare yourself for the possibility that your tax information could be stolen.
Here are a few tips on protecting yourself from tax fraud in 2016:
File Your Taxes Early: The early bird gets the worm; this also rings true when filing tax returns. If you file your tax return before a criminal does you’re in a much better position, as the tax return will already be marked as filed, preventing anyone else from filing a tax return with your credentials.
Avoid Password Reuse: Poor password management is one of the leading problems in cybersecurity. Remembering passwords can be cumbersome, so we do what is in our nature — we take shortcuts. Unfortunately, taking shortcuts on password management can lead to many problems. Employees have historically been shown to use the same password across several accounts, which could leave an organization vulnerable to compromise. In this scenario, a cybercriminal could obtain an employee’s login credentials from another site (Facebook is a good example) and use it to log into several accounts — even the employee’s account within an organization. Make sure employees are aware of the problems with password reuse. Also, make sure passwords are utilizing capitalization, numbers, symbols and are at least 8 characters long. Organizations can take this one step further and enable two-factor authentication, which would require an additional login step before employees, or malicious actors, could access accounts.
Educate Employees About BEC Scams:Employees are one of the primary targets in tax fraud. It is vital that employees understand the dangers of opening attachments from unknown sources. It is equally important that employees question unusual requests — like what you would see in a BEC scam email. Make sure employees understand that it is okay to ask questions before performing job functions, especially if that job function was requested via email. Before sensitive information is accessed, put in place checkpoints to make sure this information is only being shared with authorized and legitimate personnel.
Deploy Security: While there are plenty of examples that show security tools are not a 100% guarantee of protection, features such as firewalls and antivirus software are paramount when it comes to securing your data. It is also important to make sure these tools and other software — such as your operating system — are current on updates. The latest updates could provide patches to vulnerabilities in older versions of the software.
A new episode of the SurfWatch Cyber Risk Roundup has been posted, Episode 67: DDoS Attacks Return, QuickTime Support Ends and a Massive Trade Secret Verdict:
The Lizard Squad is back with DDoS attacks against gaming company Blizzard. The Janet education network was also hit with more DDoS attacks. More stolen W-2 and personal information was used to file fraudulent tax returns, this time affecting employees of Baltimore City and the Catholic Archdiocese of Denver. On the advisory front there were more WordPress warnings, scary new ransomware, and the end of support for QuickTime for Windows. Legal stories included a jury awarding electronic medical record company Epic Systems $940 million in damages, Microsoft suing the federal government, and breach-related class action lawsuits moving forward against several organizations. Plus, a judge told Ashley Madison users they cannot remain anonymous.
Listen to the podcast via the player below, or learn more about SurfWatch Labs podcasts on our podcast page.
Malicious actors are increasingly using legitimate tools such as PowerShell in order to lessen their digital footprint and evade detection, and the use of such ubiquitous and legitimate technology can be a problem for organizations when it comes to defending against those threats.
That’s according to Carbon Black senior security researcher Rico Valdez, who joined us for this week’s Cyber Chat podcast to discuss recent research on PowerShell, including a new report examining more than 1,100 security investigations in 2015.
Windows PowerShell is an automation platform and scripting language that Microsoft describes as “providing a massive set of built-in functionality for taking control of your Windows environments.”
The legitimate use along with the built-in functionality makes it a perfect tool for attackers to exploit.
“It used to be the kind of thing where only really sophisticated adversaries would use it, but it’s gotten to the point now where it’s being incorporated in a lot of commodity malware,” Valdez said. “It’s another way to stay under the radar and try to remain undetected.”
Utilizing PowerShell fits into the overall trend of attackers avoiding dropping a lot of tools onto a system; instead, they utilize what’s already there in order to further their goals.
“Monitoring it can be very tricky,” Valdez said. “I don’t think it’s very well understood even by the larger SOCs (security operations centers). Its one of those things that’s a little bit further down on the list for a lot of these organizations to really dig into.”
How are criminals using PowerShell?
When looking at the data from a variety of Incident Response and MSSP partners, 38% of confirmed cyber incidents used PowerShell. This included all industries and multiple attack campaigns.
“It’s quite powerful in that it can pretty much touch any part of the system, and if you’re running it with the right privileges it can pretty much do anything on the system,” Valdez said.
For example, last month a new family of ransomware was discovered dubbed “PowerWare.” PowerWare uses the popular technique of duping users via phishing messages containing a macro-enabled Microsoft Word document. The malicious macros then use PowerShell to further the attack.
Eighty-seven percent of the attacks leveraging PowerShell were commodity malware attacks such as ransomware, click fraud, fake antivirus, and others. Only 13% were described as “advanced” attacks.
This technique is a good example of how attacks tend to evolve, Valdez said. First they’re discovered by sophisticated actors and used in targeted attacks. Then — if they work well — they become mainstream.
“This is a real risk in your environment and you need to be aware of it, because, again, most people aren’t watching it, monitoring it, anything like that.”
Listen to the full conversation with Carbon Black’s Rico Valdez for more about PowerShell and how organizations can protect themselves.
About the Podcast A new ransomware was recently discovered dubbed PowerWare, which targets organizations via Microsoft Word and PowerShell, and just last week Carbon Black released a report looking at how PowerShell is being utilized for malicious intent. They wrote in the report that “the discovery of using PowerShell in attacks such as PowerWare is part of a larger, worrisome trend when it comes to PowerShell.”
On today’s Cyber Chat we talk with Carbon Black senior security researcher Rico Valdez about the company’s recent findings and how cybercriminals are increasingly using PowerShell to remain under the radar while targeting organizations.
The consumer goods sector has seen more chatter around DDoS than any other sector so far in 2016, according to data from SurfWatch Labs.
The consumer goods sector has become a popular target for DDoS attacks, with new groups like DD4BC emerging on the scene and attempting to extort money from victims in exchange for not launching a DDoS attack against them. Retail stores – especially online retailers – make appealing targets for cybercriminals as they are more likely to pay a ransom demand to avoid service interruption due to the amount of money that could be potentially lost during a DDoS attack.
Gaming networks such as Steam, Xbox Live, and the PlayStation Network are popular targets. Last week, the infamous cyber group Lizard Squad launched a DDoS attack against Blizzard’s gaming servers, effectively taking the servers offline for a couple hours.
DDoS attacks are a popular method of cyber-attack due to their ease of execution and price point. There are DDoS-for-hire services on the web that can be utilized for just $38 per hour. This price is shockingly low considering companies have reportedly lost anywhere from $5,000 to $40,000 per hour during a DDoS attack.
DDoS will remain a popular trend in cybercrime. However, DDoS related CyberFacts have decreased since peaking in January 2016.
Layer 7 DDoS Attack Makes Headlines
Earlier this month, a humongous Layer 7 DDoS attack was spotted reaching 8.7 Gbps of bandwidth through the Nitol botnet, which set a new record for this specific type of DDoS attack. While 8.7 Gbps doesn’t seem like much of a figure compared to traditional DDoS attacks of over 100 Gbps, Layer 7 DDoS attacks are different.
A DoS attack is an attempt by a criminal or hacktivist group to make a computer or network resource unavailable. This is done by interrupting a host’s services that are connected to the Internet. The most common method of DoS is a DDoS attack. DDoS attacks use botnets –- an enslaved group of computers –- to push massive amounts of communication to a targeted server to achieve its goal of service disruption.
A Layer 7 DDoS attack has the same end goal as a traditional DDoS attack, except for a few small differences. It only needs to use a small amount of network packets to disrupt service as this will create massive server processing operations that will exhaust a target’s CPU and RAM resources. This means that a Layer 7 DDoS attack can be pulled off by sending only a few thousand requests per second.
As recent DDoS attacks have shown, cybercriminals have a variety of different ways to disrupt services or attempt to extort money from organization. Businesses should be prepared for the possibility of these attacks and work with a reputable DDoS mitigation company if they are concerned about those risks.