Weekly Cyber Risk Roundup: Scottrade Exposes Data and ATMs Get Blown Up, Drilled and Infected

The CIA remained as the top trending cybercrime of the week as WikiLeaks released a fourth set of documents related to the agency. The new dump includes 27 documents from the CIA’s Grasshopper framework, which WikiLeaks described as “a platform used to build customized malware payloads for Microsoft Windows operating systems.” The leaked CIA tools will likely continue to dominate much of the cybercrime discussion in the coming weeks as WikiLeaks appears to have a slow-drip campaign designed around maximizing the leak’s publicity.

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The top trending new cybercrime target of the week was Scottrade, which was one of several organizations to experience a data breach due to insecure, publicly exposed data. The Scottrade incident was caused by “human error” at third-party vendor Genpact, which uploaded a data set to one of its cloud servers without the proper security protocols in place. As a result, “the commercial loan application information of a small B2B unit within Scottrade Bank, including non-public information of as many as 20,000 individuals and businesses” was exposed, Scottrade said in a statement.

Security researcher Chris Vickery, who discovered the exposed database, said it contained 48,000 lessee credit profile rows and 11,000 guarantor rows, and that each row contained various types of personal information, including Social Security numbers. The database also contained internal information such as plain text passwords and employee credentials used for API access to third-party credit report websites.

Those who read this roundup each week know that breaches due to insecure databases are common, and in addition to Scottrade, Vickery also discovered “a trove of data from a range of North Carolina government offices, including Dept of Administration, Dept of Health and Human Services, Division of Medical Assistance, Dept of Cultural Resources, Dept of Public Safety, Office of State Controller, Office of State Budget and Management, NC IT Department.”

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Other trending cybercrime events from the week include:

  • IRS announces another data breach: The IRS is notifying 100,000 people that their tax information may have been compromised due to a data retrieval tool used when filling out the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA). Officials first learned of the potential issue in September 2016, but the service was not disabled until suspicious activity was observed in February. Malicious actors could pretend to be students, start the financial aid application with relatively little stolen information, and give permission for the IRS to populate the form with tax data that could then be used for fraudulent returns.
  • Highly sensitive patient data sold on the dark web: A breach at Behavioral Health Center appears to have compromised thousands of patients’ sensitive data, including evaluations, session notes, and records of sex offenders and sex abuse victims. An actor on the dark web claims between 3000 and 3500 unique individuals are in the data, which has since been sold to another actor. “These are not just basic fullz, these are the COMPLETE clinician notes from EVERY session with a patient, sometimes spanning hundreds of sessions over years,” read a listing on the dark web. “Everything confessed/discussed in complete privacy is in here for thousands of patients. All records are from 2007 to current date.”
  • Healthcare organizations targeted: An amateur actor appears to be targeting healthcare organizations with spear phishing messages designed to infect victims with a variant of the Philadelphia ransomware, an unsophisticated ransomware kit that sells for a few hundred dollars. Researchers believe spear phishing messages containing a shortened URL that led to a malicious DOCX file on a personal storage site were used to infect a hospital from Oregon and Southwest Washington. ABCD Pediatrics said that its servers were infected with “Dharma Ransomware” and while investigating the incident the company also discovered suspicious user accounts that suggested a separate incident of unauthorized access.
  • APT10 hacking group makes headlines: The APT10 hacking group has gained access to the systems of an “unprecedented web” of victims by first targeting managed outsourced IT service companies with spear phishing messages and custom malware and then using those companies as a stepping stone into their clients’ systems. The group also inserted malicious links into certain pages of the National Foreign Trade Council’s website in order to target individuals registering for specific meetings.
  • Other notable cybercrime events: The International Association of Athletics Federations said information related to athletes’ therapeutic use exemption applications was compromised due to unauthorized access to its network by “Fancy Bear.” The Dutch National Charity Lotteries said that around 450,000 customers were impacted by a vulnerability in the computer systems of Lotteries’ supplier OpenOfferete. Cybercriminals stole $40,000 of direct deposit money meant for Denver Public Schools after numerous employees fell for a phishing email. A hack of digital content network Omnia affected a variety of popular YouTube channels. The New York Post app was hacked and used to send to out a series of false push notifications. Arrests were made in Dubai related to breaking into the emails of five senior White House officials and attempting to blackmail the officials with what a local law enforcement official described as “highly confidential information.”

SurfWatch Labs collected data on many different companies tied to cybercrime over the past week. Some of those “newly seen” targets, meaning they either appeared in SurfWatch Labs’ data for the first time or else reappeared after being absent for several weeks, are shown in the chart below.

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Cyber Risk Trends From the Past Week

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While business email compromise scams and other digital fraud continues to impact numerous organizations, several stories this week proved that criminals are still attempting to steal physical cash from ATMs around the world.

The flashiest story involved a gang based out England that used explosives and stolen high-powered vehicles to rip ATMs from walls. The gang would then put the stolen ATMs inside a large truck and drive away, in at least one instance right by the very police looking for them. Police announced that several recent raids had led to the arrest of the gang. Less flashy attempted ATM thefts from hotels in Edmonton led police to advise business last month that owners should bolt ATMs to the floor and place them in well lit, high-traffic areas that are monitored by surveillance cameras.

A new, more discreet method of stealing money from ATMs involves emptying the cash stored in certain models by drilling a three-inch hole in its front panel and using a $15 homemade gadget that injects malicious commands to trigger the machine’s cash dispenser. Kaspersky Lab researchers first became aware of the attack in September 2016 when a bank client discovered an empty ATM with a golf-ball sized hole by the PIN pad. Since then, similar attacks using the drill technique have been observed across Russia and Europe. The researchers did not name the ATM manufacturer, but they said the issue is difficult to fix since it would require replacing hardware in the ATMs to add more authentication measures.

Kaspersky Lab also released findings on another series of ATM attacks first hinted at back in February when a series of attacks that used in-memory malware to infect banking networks were reported. Code from the penetration-testing software Meterpreter code was combined with a number of legitimate PowerShell scripts and other utilities to create malware that could hide in the memory and invisibly collect the passwords of system administrators. That access was then used to remotely install a new breed of ATM malware called ATMitch, Kaspersky Lab researchers said in a report issued last week.

The ATMitch malware communicates with the ATM as if it is legitimate software and makes it possible for attackers to collect information about the number of banknotes in the ATM’s cassettes as well as dispense money at the touch of a button. The attackers may still be active, the researchers noted, but it is unknown how many ATMs have been targeted by the malware since the malware self-deletes after the attack. What is clear is that ATM machines remain a popular target for criminals, and businesses should be aware of the evolving methods — both crude and sophisticated — being used to steal the cash inside them.

Weekly Cyber Risk Roundup: More CIA Leaks, New Mirai Attacks, and LastPass Vulnerabilities

The CIA remained as the top trending cybercrime target of the week as WikiLeaks released a third set of documents related to the agency. The new release includes 676 source code files for the CIA’s secret anti-forensic Marble Framework, which WikiLeaks said “is used to hamper forensic investigators and anti-virus companies from attributing viruses, trojans and hacking attacks to the CIA.”

2017-04-01_ITT“The source code shows that Marble has test examples not just in English but also in Chinese, Russian, Korean, Arabic and Farsi,” WikiLeaks wrote in its announcement. “This would permit a forensic attribution double game, for example by pretending that the spoken language of the malware creator was not American English, but Chinese, but then showing attempts to conceal the use of Chinese, drawing forensic investigators even more strongly to the wrong conclusion.”

The fact that an intelligence agency would have tools to cover its tracks is hardly surprising. However, it appears that WikiLeaks will continue to leak CIA documents for the foreseeable future, and those leaks may have yet-to-be known implications for governments, tech companies, and cybercriminal actors. After the initial CIA leak in early March, WikiLeaks tweeted that is has released less than one percent of its Vault7 series.

Another recurring story in these roundups is the Mirai botnet, and researchers said this week that a new variant is likely behind a 54-hour long DDoS attack that targeted a U.S. college. The attack peaked at 37,000 requests per second, the most Incapsula has seen out of any Mirai botnet. The company said 56 percent of all IPs used in the attack belonged to DVRs manufactured by the same vendor. IoT devices continue to make headlines for vulnerabilities – including certain devices that were allegedly targeted by the CIA – and this past week saw new warnings of methods for hacking smart televisions as well as a vulnerability in an Internet-connected washer-disinfector. As SurfWatch Labs chief security strategist Adam Meyer recently wrote, IoT devices have potentially become the largest digital footprint of organizations that is not under proper security management.

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Other trending cybercrime events from the week include:

  • Data breaches expose more credentials:  A hacker has stolen the email addresses and MD5-hashed passwords of 6.5 million accounts from Dueling Network, a now-defunct Flash game based on the Yu-Gi-Oh trading card game. Although the game was shut down in 2016, the forum continued to run until recently. Nearly 14 million stolen and fake email credentials from the 300 largest U.S. universities are for sale on the dark web, a rise from only 2.8 million last year, according to the nonprofit Digital Citizens Alliance. The stolen email addresses and passwords sell from $3.50 to $10 each.
  • Warnings of skimming and keylogging devices: Carleton University in Ottawa said it discovered USB keylogging devices on six classroom computers during a routine inspection, and the university is urging staff and students to change passwords for any accounts they may have accessed from classroom computers. The San Bernardino County Sheriff’s Department has received more than 70 reports of credit card fraud tied to a suspected card skimming device in Big Bear. A Romanian citizen pleaded guilty to a scheme to defraud customers of Bank of America and PNC Bank via ATM skimming.
  • Ransomware notifications continue: Urology Austin has notified 200,000 patients of a January 22 ransomware attack that may have compromised their information. Ransomware encrypted files belonging to Forsyth Public Schools and information such as lesson plans and schedules stored by teachers on the district server is likely lost due to the incident. Estill County Chiropractic is notifying 5,335 patients of unauthorized access to its system and a ransomware infection that may have compromised their personal information. Ransomware was found on the computer systems of the Tweede Kamer, the lower house of Dutch parliament.
  • Former employee causes serious problems: A former IT administrator of the Lucchese Boot Company pleaded guilty to hacking the servers and cloud accounts of his employer after he was fired, and the company claims it lost $100,000 in new orders in addition to the extra IT costs it had to endure due to the attack. According to the complaint, the former employee logged into an administrator account after being fired and proceeded to shut down the corporate email and application servers, deleted files on the servers to block any attempts for a reboot, and then began shutting down or changing the passwords on the company’s cloud accounts.
  • Other notable cybercrime events: The personal information of 3.7 million Hong Kong voters and the city’s 1,200 electors may have been compromised when two laptops were stolen. Approximately 95,000 individuals who applied online for a job at McDonald’s in Canada had their information compromised due to unauthorized access to the company’s database. Multiple employees of the Washington University School of Medicine fell for phishing emails designed to steal credentials used to access their email. While investigating a data breach related to employees’ W-2 forms, Daytona State College discovered a second data breach involving student financial aid forms. A Russian citizen has pleaded guilty to his role in helping spread malware known as “Ebury,” which harvested log-on credentials from infected computer servers, allowing the criminal enterprise behind the operation to operate a botnet comprising tens of thousands of infected servers throughout the world.

SurfWatch Labs collected data on many different companies tied to cybercrime over the past week. Some of those “newly seen” targets, meaning they either appeared in SurfWatch Labs’ data for the first time or else reappeared after being absent for several weeks, are shown in the chart below.

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Cyber Risk Trends From the Past Week

2017-04-01_RiskScoresThe password manager LastPass has addressed a series of vulnerabilities that were discovered by Google Project Zero researcher Tavis Ormandy, including one now-patched “unique and highly sophisticated” client-side vulnerability in the LastPass browser extension.

In a March 31 update, LastPass advised its users to ensure they are running the latest version (4.1.44 or higher) of the extension so that they are protected.

The vulnerability, which could be exploited to steal data and manipulate the LastPass extension, required first luring a user to either a malicious website or a website running malicious adware and then taking advantage of the way LastPass behaves in “isolated worlds,” the company said.

An isolated world is a JavaScript execution environment that shares the same DOM (Document Object Model) as other worlds, but things like variables and functions are not shared. LastPass explained:

The separation is supposed to keep both sides safer from external manipulation. In some cases, these variables can influence the logic of the content script. It is difficult to inject arbitrary values into JavaScript using this technique. But in a particularly clever move, the report demonstrated that arbitrary strings could be injected, and one of these was enough to trick the extension into thinking it was executing on lastpass.com. By doing so, an attacker could manipulate the LastPass extension into revealing the stored data of that user, and launch arbitrary executables in the case of the binary version.

Fixing the issue required “a significant change” to the browser extensions and LastPass urges other extension developers to look for this pattern in their code and ensure that they are not vulnerable to a similar attack.

The patch came just 10 days after LastPass issued another update to address two other issues discovered by Ormandy that could allow the attacker to potentially retrieve and expose information from the LastPass account, such as user’s login credentials.

The incident serves as a reminder that vulnerabilities continue to be discovered in a variety of products, including the tools used to help keep individuals and organizations safe. Having a full accounting of an organization’s technology infrastructure as well as policies and procedures to track new vulnerabilities and patch software is one of the most effective ways to combat malicious actors who rely on exploiting well-known vulnerabilities.